Acne vulgaris is a polymorphic disease of hair follicles and sebaceous glands developing as a result of overproduction of sebaceous glands secretion, follicular hyperkeratosis, inflammation, lipid imbalance, hormonal changes and genetic predisposition.
Acne vulgaris is a widespread pathology. Almost all teenagers develop acne of varying severity. Nearly 15% of adolescents seek medical attention.
Pathogenesis of acne vulgaris is based on several mechanisms. Puberty is characterized by changes in hormonal balance between androgens and estrogens. The lever of androgen in patients with acne vulgaris is usually 2 times higher than in healthy individuals. Hypersecretion of sebum results from high androgen levels and increased sensitivity of sebaceous glands to them.
Moreover, the majority of patients develop hyperkeratinization of follicle epithelium leading to blockage of follicular duct. These processes create favorable conditions for reproduction of Propionibacterium acne.
These bacteria release different chemoattractants that attract leukocytes, lipase and many enzymes to inflammatory area causing damage of the follicle wall. This ultimately leads to formation of various inflammatory and noninflammatory acne-elements.
The important role in developing of acne vulgaris belongs to generic predisposition. The risk of acne is 50-60% higher in adolescents whose parents experienced this problem previously. Along with generic factors, acne vulgaris can be provoked by the following factors:
Acne vulgaris is often treated by dermatologists (doctors who specialize in skin problems). The goals of acne treatment is based on:
The treatment of acne vulgaris depends on the type and severity of acne and include prescription, OTC (over-the-counter) medications, cosmetic units and appropriate skin care such as: