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Acute arterial hypotension

Acute arterial hypotension is a condition characterized by sudden drop of blood pressure. Acute arterial hypotension can be life-threatening condition requiring emergency care. Acute symptomatic hypotension is often accompanied by acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, severe intracardiac blockade, allergic reactions, blood loss, etc.

The characteristic manifestations of acute hypotension include:

  • Pale, cold, often wet skin
  • Dizziness
  • Blackouts
  • Thirst, dry mouth
  • Increasing weakness
  • Anxiety and sometimes fear

In rapid decrease of blood pressure patients may develop Meniere's syndrome, seizures with chills, abundant cold sweat and uncontrollable urge to urinate.

If hypotension is caused by blood loss, the symptoms will vary depending on the volume and duration of blood loss. In the initial stage, when the blood loss is 800-1200ml, general condition is grave, the measure of systolic pressure is less than 80mm Hg. The heartbeat is increased, urination in decreases, skin is pale and cold with bluish tint. If the blood loss is more than 2500 ml (nearly 50%) follows decompensation stage. Arterial blood pressure is less than 60mm, stable tachycardia (120-150 heartbeats per minutes), cardiac output is decreased.

If acute hypotension is caused by acute heart failure, blood pressure levels are 80/60 mm Hg. Another symptoms include short wind, skin pallor, cyanosis. The frequency of heartbeats is 100-110 heartbeats.

Another causes of acute arterial hypotension is infectious disease developing as a result of organism intoxication. Decrease of blood pressure is accompanied by fever ( 40 ), chills, headache, general weakness. Many patients experience insomnia, muscle and joint pain, rash on the skin and mucous linings, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Blood picture shows significant increase in leukocytes blood levels.

In anaphylactic shock sudden drop of blood pressure develops a result of allergic reaction to certain allergens. Anaphylactic shock is characterized by impairment of consciousness, sensitivity and motor activity.

Drugs Used in Treatment of Acute arterial hypotension